Organizational structures can be broadly classified into;
Most of the manufacturing / service organizations are divided functionally. Each function will have a head, who in turn reports to the CEO. For example an automobile manufacturer will have functions like;
Each of these functions are headed by a senior manager (functional managers), who in turn report to the CEO.
In matrix organizations, the team members report to more than one boss. Team members may report to the project manager for the project related activities, and to the functional manager for specific function related activities. For example, a technical architect in a project may report to the project manager for project related activities and at the same time report to the Chief Technology officer (CTO) for technology related stuff. Most of the product companies, which calls for multi-disciplinary skills to develop the product of the project falls into this category. Matrix organizations are further subdivided into;
In projectized organizations, whatever they do is a project. For example; I.T projects companies, Civil projects companies etc. They perform projects after projects. Project manager and the teams are the breadwinners of the organization. Project managers have maximum authority levels in projectized organizations. In projectized organizations, all other functions play the support role to the project.
Composite organizations have a combination of functional, matrix and projectized structure.
A through understanding of the stakeholder’s (customers, suppliers and your own organization) organizational structures will help in accurate mapping of the stakeholders into;
This knowledge will help us to go beyond what is drafted in the contractual documents and manage key stakeholders very effectively.
The following videos explains this further
Anybody who is affected positively or negatively, by doing a project or by delaying a project is a stakeholder. Identifying the key stakeholders upfront helps to capture and manage their expectations proactively. For any given project the direct stakeholders are;
The indirect stakeholders list can be very vast, and at the same time identifying and managing the indirect stakeholders is key to the project’s success. It is very difficult to come out with a universal list of indirect stakeholders. Here is a sample;
It is worth spending time to identify the key stakeholders and their impact on your project / product individually and collectively, at the beginning of the project and throughout the project.
Once the stakeholder list is prepared, the next logical step is to group them into;
and develop strategies to maintain a high degree of stakeholder interest in your project / product (stakeholder engagement). If all the key stakeholders are happy during and after the project, your project is a success story.
Reference stakeholder mapping
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Who should attend?
Iteration#1 – Master project initiation
Iteration#2 – Master project scope definition
Iteration#3 – Learn to develop the schedule
Iteration#4 – Learn to develop the subsidiary plans
Iteration#5 – Master Project execution
Iteration#6 – Learn to Monitor and control project work
Iteration#7 – Learn to formally close project / phases
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Iteration#9 – Things we did not discuss so far which are very important for the PMP exam preparation
Iteration#10 – Exam practice
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If someone assigns me as the project manager of a project, the first document I will refer to understand the overall details of the project is the project charter, which is one of the key outputs of the project initiation process. If it is not available, I will work along with the sponsor (senior management representative who is in charge of the project) to define one and get his approval.
A typical project charter contains;
The project charter is approved by the sponsor. This is the formal document which appoints the project manager to the project officially. Project charter gives authority to the project manager. Any changes to the project charter must be re-approved by the sponsor.
Project charter brings in lot of clarity into the project, and is a good basis for planning the project.